A team is defined as a group of people working together to achieve a common goal or objective. According to Hackman, "they seek a common goal" (Forsyth, 2010, pg 402). When I think of a team, I think of a group that shares the same interests and desired outcome. For example, I am reminded of when my sons played Little League Baseball. They shared the same common goal with their teammates; to learn the sport of baseball and collaboratively play the game and win. But also have lots of fun and make friends doing so. An effective team is one that achieves the defined task and its members are united as a whole for the common purpose, just like in Little League. Hackman states, "Real teams embrace shared goals that guide the work of the group and heighten members' motivation" (Forsyth, 2010, pg 402). In order to get the maximum output from groups' members, teams are made in organizations. There are many different types of teams. Teams are developed to achieve the most success, depending on the needs of the organization. Teams are classified by major four types:
1. Cross Functional Team- members bring a different functional specialty to solve a specific problem, to better invent, and deliver a product or service. An example of a member's specialty might be in finance or marketing. Sometimes this team might use outside sources such as consultants or customers to help with problem solving.
2. Virtual Team- members in this group come together to accomplish a specific task by the use of technology. This team relies solely on technology to function as a team. Being in a virtual team is cost effective and meets a wide variety of needs. Virtual teams need effective leadership to function properly and communication is just as important for the desired outcome. The anatomies of this type of team consist of inputs, socio-emotional processes, task process, and outputs. Socio-emotional refers to the processes that helps the team members work together effectively, while the task process is ways in which the team accomplishes its work, therefore producing either a tangible product or intangible benefit as a result.
3. Self Managing Team- a group of people that work together and are accountable for all the aspects of their task. Members of this type of team basically manage themselves. Members have high work ethics because they share the responsibility for their tasks as a whole group. Each member is responsible for staying on task and being effective. Because of this, little or no management is required. Members have control over the pace of their work, yet they have determination of the assigned work.
4. Problem Solving Team- this team is made up of 5 to 12 people from the same department. They meet weekly to discuss and solve problems within the organization. Members share their ideas and suggestions that might improve the work process.